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海南是一个多元文化的交汇之地。千百年来汉族、黎族、苗族、回族等各民族文化在热带海岛的摇篮中汇集、融合、发展,形成丰富多彩的海岛文化。

汉族迁徙海南始于西汉时期,经历了多次漫长的移民浪潮。黎族源于古代百越民族的一支,于距今3000年前陆续迁徙海南岛,是海南岛最早居民。苗族大约在明代时期作为兵士或生活所迫从广西等地进岛而落籍海南。回族祖先多是宋元时期从占城(今越南中南部地区)迁来。

纵观琼岛,本土文化厚重,移民文化豁达,水上生活奇特,陆地生活平实。作为文化主体的主人,黎族质朴,苗族深沉,回族精明,汉族实干。俯视海南,火山文化、南洋骑楼、黎族织锦、苗族文绣星罗棋布……从琼北、中部绵延至天涯海角,可谓十里不同风,百里不同俗。

Hainan has long been a place of cultural exchange and interaction. Home to Han, Li, Miao, Hui and many other ethnic groups for hundreds or even thousands of years, Hainan has nurtured a rich and splendid island culture through integration and development of multi-ethnic lifestyles.

The Li people, descendants of the ancient Baiyue people, first arrived in Hainan about 3,000 years ago and were the first to populate the island. It was in the Western Han Dynasty that the Han people began to migrate to Hainan, which has subsequently welcomed further waves of migrants throughout its history. The ancestors of the Hui people mostly came from Zhancheng (southern central region of today’s Vietnam) during the Song and Yuan dynasties. The Miao people came to the island during the Ming Dynasty, either as soldiers or to flee the hardship in places such as Guangxi Province.

Hainan Island (also known as Qiongdao) boasts a mixture of ancient aboriginal culture, and an open and inclusive immigrant culture. Its unique and fascinating way of life intimately tied to water contrasts sharply with the simple and unadorned mainland lifestyle. While together the different peoples contributed to the island’s singular culture, each ethnic group maintains its distinct characteristics: the Li people are known to be simple and unsophisticated, the Miao reserved, the Hui quick witted and shrewd, and the Han steadfast in their work. On the whole, Hainan amazes people with its volcanic landscape, Southeast Asian-style arcade buildings, ethnic Li brocade and Miao embroidery ... Traveling from the north, via the center and onto Tianyahaijiao (the southern tip of the island), one can experience a variety of traditions and customs even across the short expanse of land.



第一部分 北部湾情

The northern and northwestern regions were among the earliest to be developed in Hainan. , and Dan’er and Zhuya, the earliest prefectures in Hainan, were established in this area. Prior to the Han Dynasty, ancestors of the Li people and “Shanren” people lived here. After the establishment of the prefectures, peoples including Li, Han, Min, Danzhou, Miao, Dan, and Hakka migrated in succession to Hainan from the inland areas. The merge of various ethnic groups has made Hainan a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural region. Folk traditions and customs in western Hainan are a demonstration of the Island’s unique migrant lifestyle and is the product of exchange between the different cultures over time.



第二部分 闽风琼韵

Influenced by the lifestyles of Fujian and Guangdong provinces, Qiongdong (east Hainan) was dominated by traditional farming culture, and supplemented by overseas Chinese culture and marine fishery culture. Overseas Chinese culture was a global extension of Chinese and local Hainan culture, which has derived very special forms of kinship ties or regional relationships due to unique historical and geographic circumstances. Increasing integration among these different cultures led to the creation of traits that would define aspects of Qiongdong folk culture.



第三部分 五指山风

Located in the central southern part of the Island, Wuzhi Mountain is both a symbol of and the highest peak on Hainan. The Li and Miao people have lived in this vast, mysterious and resource-abundant land for generations. By making full use of the resources in this mountainous region and with their wisdom, they overcame tremendous difficulties to reclaim deserted lands and created a distinctive ethnic culture and regional civilization.



第四部分 天涯殊俗

The majority of Hui people on the Island live in small communities in the two villages of Huixin and Huihui in Fenghuang Town, Sanya City. They have their own special customs and traditions in terms of material and spiritual culture.

The Dan (pronounced like “egg” in Chinese) people live on the water. They live year-round on boats on the sea just like “eggs” floating in saturated saline solution, hence the name “Dan” people. The Dan people in Sanya speak the Dan dialect, a member of the Cantonese language family, and retain the customs of Fujian and Guangdong. They have lived by the sea and passed down their traditions and customs from generation to generation, building their own unique culture.


梅森: 比起任何特殊的科学理论来,对人类的价值观影响更大的恐怕还是科学的方法。  
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